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Characterizing the development of thermal stratification in HCCI engines

Post, May 16, 2011 • Homogeneous charge compression ignition (HCCI) engines can deliver high efficiencies—comparable to a diesel engine or higher—and ultra-low NOx and particulate emissions. They also offer the potential for lower cost than diesel engines and do not require expensive diesel-emissions after treatment for a significantly lower overall package price. HCCI is therefore...
Figure 1. Schematic of the optically accessible HCCI research engine.|Temporal sequence of T-map images at the mid-plane of the pancake combustion chamber|Figure 3. T-map image sequence from mid-plane to near the wall at 360° CA. The “z” value below each image gives the distance of the image plane below the cylinder head.|Figure 4. Side-view T-map image showing the thermal stratification in the bulk-gas and near-wall regions at TDC (360° CA).

Thermochemical integration key to improving the efficiency of bio-ethanol production

Post, May 16, 2011 • A recently concluded CRF study as revealed the important role of combustion in the efficient operation of cellulosic ethanol plants for producing  biofuels. Unlike ‘first-generation’ ethanol derived from the fermentation of sugar or starch sources (such as corn), future production of ethanol in the United States is expected (and indeed...
Figure 2. Schematic of the modeled, prototypical lignocellulosic biochemical ethanol plant utilizing separate enzymatic hydrolysis and fermentation steps.|Figure 1. Typical composition of a softwood tree, in this case hybrid poplar.|Figure 3. Energy inputs and outputs (on the basis of lower heating value, left pie chart) and exergy inputs and outputs (right pie chart) for the conventional technology biochemical process design case.