In the automotive scale engine area, CRF researchers are focused on investigating Low-Temperature Combustion (LTC) strategies appropriate for diesel fuel, advanced diesel combustion strategies, Direct-Injection Spark-Ignition (DISI) combustion, Homogenous-Charge Compression-Ignition (HCCI) and Stratified-Charge, Compression-Ignition (SCCI) combustion strategies, and the fundamentals of fuel sprays for these applications.  HCCI research is investigating both the fundamental mechanisms controlling HCCI generic to all engine applications and a specific application to an automotive-scale engine using fuel injection during Negative-Valve-Overlap (NVO).