RESEARCH &         Sandia National Laboratories

PROFESSIONAL     Distinguished Member of Technical Staff                                                            2016 – present

EXPERIENCE          Principal Member of Technical Staff                                                                     2007 – 2016

                                Senior Member of Technical Staff                                                                         2000 – 2007

Guided research on laser/imaging diagnostics of in-cylinder processes of diesel and natural gas combustion in a heavy-duty optical engine. Focused on research questions important to the development of high-efficiency, low-emission engines. Worked with US Department of Energy (EERE/OVT), Defense (TARDEC), and industry (Lubrizol, Cummins, Delphi, Detroit Diesel) sponsors to design programs that have made significant discoveries while maintaining steady laboratory funding for 18 years. Charted research directions, wrote proposals, led experiments, analyzed data, wrote technical papers and contract reports, prepared and delivered programmatic and technical presentations to government and industry sponsors and the engine research community. Supervised team of researchers (visiting faculty, post-doctoral fellows, and student visitors), technologists, and designers.

Selected technical contributions:

  • Led the development of a conceptual model (2012) for low-temperature diesel combustion (LTC) based on multiple optical diagnostics using laser/imaging techniques and chemical kinetic simulations. This is the culmination of a decade-long research campaign involving three internal optical engine/combustion research facilities and numerous external collaborations. The conceptual model extends/contrasts Sandia’s 1997 conceptual model for conventional diesel combustion, describing newly discovered in-cylinder processes of LTC combustion, including lean-source unburned hydrocarbons, spatial/temporal evolution of ignition/combustion, and soot/precursor dynamics.
  • Discovered and confirmed the existence of an “entrainment wave” of increased mixing after the end of injection using experiments, analytical theory, and computer modeling (one-dimensional, KIVA/RANS, and LES). The effects of increased mixing due to the entrainment wave on emissions and efficiency are fundamental to direct injection engines, especially for LTC conditions with enhanced premixing and for multiple injections. The one-dimensional model developed as part of this effort has been widely adopted, including as a standard jet model for the Engine Combustion Network.
  • Developed and/or improved laser/optical diagnostics for engine research, including detailed quantification of various uncertainties and diagnostic considerations for laser-extinction methods in high-pressure combustion environments, using laser-induced fluorescence of formaldehyde as a marker for unburned fuel as supported by chemical kinetic modeling, using multiple laser excitation wavelengths to probe precursors to soot formation, quantifying uncertainties in spectral (e.g., 2-color) diagnostics for soot at conventional and LTC conditions, and using infrared imaging for measuring vapor fuel penetration.

Sandia National Laboratories

Post-Doctoral Research Fellow                                                                            1999 – 2000

Assisted construction and research in alternative fuels optical diesel engine laboratory, including glow-plug ignition of direct-injected methanol.

Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Wisconsin-Madison

Teaching Assistant, Lecturer and Research Scientist                                                1998 – 1999

Instructed students in thermal systems laboratory and undergraduate fluid mechanics course and completed research on confocal two-photon NO fluorescence in flames.

Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Wisconsin-Madison

Ph.D. Graduate Research Assistant                                                                      1994 – 1998

Developed and applied a new technique for laser-induced fluorescence of CH yielding higher signal strength by using a “diagonal” excitation/emission scheme.

Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Wisconsin-Madison

M.S. Graduate Research Assistant                                                                        1992 – 1994

Developed and implemented a coherent flamelet combustion model in KIVA.

Chrysler Corporation, Detroit, MI

Engineering Intern                                                                       Summer 1991, Summer 1992

Modified design of existing cast-iron disk brake rotor for aluminum matrix composite.

Developed enhancements for Viper cooling system to support addition of A/C condenser.

EDUCATION           Ph.D., Mechanical Engineering – University of Wisconsin-Madison          Conferred August 1998

Thesis: “Development of a Diagonal Excitation/Observation Diagnostic Technique for Planar Laser-Induced Fluorescence of the CH Radical in Diesel Engines”

M.S., Mechanical Engineering – University of Wisconsin-Madison               Conferred May 1994

Thesis: “Coherent Flamelet Modeling of Diesel Engine Combustion”

B.S. Mechanical Engineering – Michigan Technological University              Conferred May 1992

Core studies: thermodynamics, heat transfer, and fluid mechanics, focusing on IC engines

AWARDS &                Elected Fellow of the SAE (2016)

HONORS                    Sandia Bastress Award for Coupling CRF Programs to US Industry (2016)

  • SAE Forest R. McFarland Award (2015)
    • SAE John Johnson Award for Outstanding Research in Diesel Engines (2015)
    • ASME Best Paper Award, Fall Technical Conference (2014)
    • SAE John Johnson Award for Outstanding Research in Diesel Engines (2011)
    • SAE Arch T. Colwell Merit Award (2012)
    • SAE Lloyd L. Withrow Distinguished Speaker Award (2008)
    • ASME Best Paper Award, Fall Technical Conference (2009)
    • National Science Foundation 3-year Fellowship (1992-1996)
    • Michigan Technological University Board of Control Scholarship (1988-1992)
    • Senator Robert Byrd Memorial Scholarship (1988)

PROFESSIONAL        Associate Editor, Engine & Automotive Eng., Frontiers in Mechanical Eng.           2014-present

ENGAGEMENT       •  Associate Editor, SAE Journal of Engines                                                         2012-present

  • Chair, SAE Engine Combustion Committee 2015-2017
  • Vice Chair, SAE Engine Combustion Committee 2014-2015
  • Member, SAE Combustion & Fuels Committee 2007-present
  • International Advisory Board, Chalmers University CERC, Sweden 2010-2012
  • Lead Organizer, Combustion in CI Engines Session, SAE International Congress 2006-present
  • Lead Organizer, Combustion in Gaseous-Fueled Engines Session, SAE ICE Naples 2015
  • Lead Organizer, Diagnostics and Measurements Session, SAE Fall PF&L 2005-2009
  • Reviewer for SAE, ASME, US Department of Energy, multiple academic journals, other national and international government funding agencies

VISITORS               Dr. Greg Roberts (post-doctoral fellow, Stanford University)                              Oct 2013 – present

MENTORED            Sandia National Laboratories

(original institution)

current affiliation         Prof. Christine Rousselle (visiting faculty)                                                    Aug 2016 – present

(18 Listed)                University of Orléans, France

Ted Lind (PhD student, Lund University, Sweden)       Apr – Dec 2016

Lund University, Sweden

Prof. W. Ethan Eagle (post-doctoral fellow, University of Michigan) Oct 2013 – Nov 2016

Wayne State University

Ian Liu (student intern)            June – Aug 2015, June – Aug 2016

University of California, San Diego

Dr. Louis-Marie Malbec (visiting scholar)        Mar 2014 – Mar 2015

IFPen, France

Dr. Ezio Mancaruso (visiting faculty)       Oct 2014, Apr – May 2015

Istituto Motori, Italy

Luigi Sequino (visiting researcher)                   Apr – May 2015

Istituto Motori, Italy

Dr. Niels Leermakers (PhD student, Tech. U. of Eindhoven, The Netherlands) May – Oct 2013

DAF Trucks, The Netherlands

Prof. Jacqueline O’Connor (post-doctoral fellow, Georgia Institute of Tech.)    Jan 2012 – Jun 2013

Penn State University (faculty)

Prof. Sage Kokjohn (PhD student visitor, Univ. of Wisconsin) Aug 2010 – Mar 2011

University of Wisconsin-Madison (faculty)

Francisco Briceño (PhD student, CMT-Motores Térmicos, U. Valencia, Spain) Aug – Sep 2011

Nissan, Barcelona, Spain

Prof. Jose-Maria Garcia Oliver (visting faculty)     July – Aug 2010

CMT-Motores Térmicos, U. Valencia, Spain

Dr. Clement Chartier (PhD Student, Lund University, Sweden) Jan – Mar 2010

Scania AB, Sweden

Dr. Mohan Bobba (post-doctoral fellow, Georgia Institute of Technology)   Oct 2007 – Jul 2010

GE Energy, Greenville SC, USA

Prof. Caroline Genzale (PhD student, University of Wisconsin) Sep 2006 – Jun 2007

Georgia Institute of Technology (tenured faculty)

Kyle Kattke (student intern, University of California-Davis) May – Aug 2007

Abengoa Solar (R&D Engineer)

Wiley Neel (student intern)                           May – Aug 2008

Sandia National Laboratories

Prof. Satbir Singh (PhD student, University of Wisconsin) Aug 2004 – Mar 2005

Carnegie Mellon University (faculty)

Edwin Huestis (student intern, University of California, Davis) Jun – Sep 2006

Pacific Gas and Electric

Dr. Thierry Lachaux (post-doctoral fellow, CNRS and U. of Orléans, France) Oct 2004 – Jan 2007

Alstom, Switzerland

PUBLICATIONS AND SELECTED PRESENTATIONS

Invited/keynote presentations (21):

ERC – 2017 Symposium: Impact of Future Regulations on Engine Technology, Madison, WI Jun 2017

Tailor-Made Fuels from Production to Propulsion, 5th International Conference, Aachen, Germany     Jun 2017

Cummins Tech Center Thermal and Fluid Sciences Functional Excellence (TSFE) Conference, Columbus IN           Apr 2017

University Seminar Series, Lund University, Sweden                                                      Oct 2017

FISITA 2016 World Automotive Congress, Busan, South Korea                                    Sep 2016

Laser Diagnostics in Combustion, Gordon Research Conference, Waterville Valley, NH Aug 2015

Condensed Matter & Materials Division Seminar Series, Lawrence Livermore Nat’l. Lab., Livermore CA           May 2014

University Seminar Series, Pennsylvania State University, State College, PA                                                   Apr 2014

Invited Lecture, Eindhoven University of Technology, The Netherlands                                                           Feb 2014

Institute for Sustainable Energy Seminar Series, University of Alabama, Tuscaloosa, AL                                   Apr 2013

Technical Seminar Series, John Deere, Waterloo IA                                                                                      Jul 2013

SAE 11th International Conference on Engines & Vehicles, Capri, Italy                                                          Sep 2013

International Energy Agency 34th Task Leaders Meeting in Combustion Agreement, Jeju, Korea                         Oct 2012

Technical Seminar Series, Cummins Inc, Columbus IN                                                                                Jun 2012

Technical Seminar Series, Navistar, Naperville, IL                                                                                       Jun 2012

Combustion Engine Research Center Annual Review, Chalmers University, Gothenburg, Sweden                       May 2011

Graduate Seminar Series, Michigan Technological University, Houghton, MI           Apr 2010

University Seminar Series (week-long lecture), CMT-Motores Térmicos. Valencia, Spain Sep 2009

Diesel Jet Mixing in Conventional and Low-Temperature Diesel Combustion, Rhodes Island, Greece May 2007

What’s New in Engine Research, SoCal Science Café, Newport Beach, CA                 Apr 2007

Technical Seminar Series, Detroit Diesel Corporation, Detroit, MI                              Apr 2006

Invited book chapters (2):

“Experimental facilities and measurements – fundamentals,” Musculus MPB, Pickett LM and Kaiser SA, in Encyclopedia of Automotive Engineering, John Wiley & Sons, Hoboken, NJ (2014)

“In-cylinder spray, mixing, combustion, and pollutant-formation processes in conventional and low-temperature combustion diesel engines,” Musculus MPB and Pickett LM, in Advanced Direct Injection Combustion Engine Technologies and Development, Volume 2: Diesel Engines, Woodhead Publishing of Cambridge (2010)

Peer-reviewed publications (63):

“Measurements of liquid length, vapor penetration, ignition delay, and flame lift-off length for the Engine Combustion Network ‘Spray B’ in a 2.34 l heavy-duty optical diesel engine,” Eagle WE, Malbec L-M, Musculus MPB, SAE Int. J. Engines 9:910-931 (2016).

“Parametric comparison of well-mixed and flamelet n-dodecane spray combustion with engine experiments at well controlled boundary conditions,” Maghbouli A, Lucchini T, D’Errico G, Onorati A, Malbec L-M, Musculus MPB, Eagle WE, SAE paper 2016-01-0577, SAE World Congress, April 2016.

“An improved entrainment rate measurement method for transient jets from 10kHz particle image velocimetry,” Eagle WE, Musculus MPB, Malbec L-M, Bruneaux G, Atomization and Sprays 27(6):493-510 (2016)

“Effect of post injections on mixture preparation and unburned hydrocarbon emissions in a heavy-duty diesel engine,” O’Connor JA, Musculus MPB, Pickett LM, Combustion and Flame 170:111-123 (August 2016)

“Applying advanced CFD analysis tools to study differences between start-of-main and start-of-post injection flow, temperature and chemistry fields due to combustion of main-injected fuel,” Hessel R, Reitz RD, Yue Z, Musculus MPB, O’Connor J, SAE Int. J. Engines 8:2159-2176 (2015)

“Influence of injection duration and ambient temperature on the ignition delay in a 2.34L optical diesel engine,” Malbec LM, Eagle WE, Musculus MPB and Schihl P, SAE Tech. Paper 2015-01-1830, SAE Int. J. Engines 9:47-70 (2015)

“Evaluating temperature and fuel stratification for heat-release rate control in a reactivity-controlled compression-ignition engine using optical diagnostics and chemical kinetics modeling,” Kokjohn SL, Musculus MP and Reitz RD, Combust. Flame 162(6):2729–2742 (2015)

“A CFD study of post injection influences on soot formation and oxidation under diesel-like operating conditions,” Hessel RP, Reitz RD, Musculus MPB, O’Connor J and Flowers DL, SAE Tech. Paper 2014-01-1256, SAE Int. J. Engines 7:694-713 (2014)

“Effect of load on close-coupled post-injection efficacy for soot reduction in an optical, heavy-duty diesel research engine,” O’Connor JA and Musculus MPB, J. Eng. Gas Turb. Power, 136(10):101509-101509-16 (2014)

“Cinema-stereo imaging of fuel dribble after the end of injection in an optical heavy-duty diesel engine,” Eagle WE and Musculus MPB, Paper A.2.3, THIESEL 2014 Conference on Thermo- and Fluid Dynamic Processes in Direct Injection Engines, Valencia, Spain (2014)

“In-cylinder mechanisms of soot reduction by close-coupled post-injections as revealed by imaging of soot luminosity and planar laser-induced soot incandescence in a heavy-duty diesel engine,” O’Connor JA and Musculus MPB, SAE Tech. Paper 2014-01-1255, SAE Int. J. Engines 7:673-693 (2014)

“In-cylinder soot precursor growth in a low-temperature combustion diesel engine: laser-induced fluorescence of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons,” Leermakers CAJ and Musculus MPB, Proc. Combust. Inst. 35(3):3079-3086 (2014)

“Effect of load on close-coupled post-injection efficacy for soot reduction in an optical, heavy-duty diesel research engine,” O’Connor JA and Musculus MPB, Paper ICEF2013-19037, ASME Internal Combustion Engine Fall Technical Conference (2013)

“Post injections for soot reduction in diesel engines: A review of current understanding,” O’Connor JA and Musculus MPB, SAE Tech. Paper 2013-01-0917, SAE Int. J. Engines 6:400-4219 (2013)

“Optical investigation of the reduction of unburned hydrocarbons using close-coupled post injections at LTC conditions in a heavy-duty diesel engine,” O’Connor JA and Musculus MPB, SAE Tech. Paper 2013-01-0910, SAE Int. J. Engines 6:379-399 (2013)

“Effects of EGR and load on soot in a heavy-duty optical diesel engine with close-coupled post-injections for high efficiency combustion phasing,” O’Connor JA and Musculus MPB, Int. J. Eng. Res. 15(4):421-443 (2013)

“Conceptual models for partially premixed low-temperature diesel combustion,” Musculus MPB, Miles PC and Pickett LM, Prog. Energy Combust. Sci. 39(2):246-283 (2013)

“Investigation of fuel reactivity stratification for controlling PCI heat-release rates using high-speed chemiluminescence imaging and fuel tracer fluorescence,” Kokjohn S, Reitz RD, Splitter D and Musculus MPB, SAE Tech. Paper 2012-01-0375, SAE Int. J. Engines 5(2):248-269 (2012)

“The influence of large-scale structures on scalar mixing and entrainment in a decelerating transient turbulent jet revealed by large eddy simulation,” Hu B, Musculus MPB, and Oefelein JC, Physics of Fluids 24:045106 (2012)

“Effects of post-injection strategies on near-injector over-lean mixtures and unburned hydrocarbon emission in a heavy-duty optical diesel engine,” Chartier C, Andersson Ö, Johansson B, Musculus MPB and Bobba MK, SAE Tech. Paper 2011-01-1383, SAE Int. J. Engines 4:1978-1992 (2011)

“Relationship between diesel fuel spray vapor penetration/dispersion and local fuel mixture fraction,” Pickett LM, Manin J, Genzale CL, Siebers DL, Musculus MPB and Idicheria CA, SAE Tech. Paper 2011-01-0686, SAE Int. J. Engines 4(1):764-799 (2011)

“Laser diagnostics of soot precursors in a heavy-duty diesel engine at low-temperature combustion conditions,” Bobba MK and Musculus MPB, Combust. Flame 159(2), 832-843 (2011)

“Effect of post injections on in-cylinder and exhaust soot for low-temperature combustion in a heavy-duty diesel engine,” M. Bobba, M. Musculus and W. Neel, SAE Tech. Paper 2010-01-0612, SAE Int. J. Engines 3(1), 496-516 (2010)

“Large eddy simulation of a transient air jet with emphasis on entrainment during deceleration,” B. Hu, M. Musculus, J. Oefelein, SAE Tech. Paper 2010-01-1133 (2010)

“Numerical modeling and analysis of entrainment in turbulent jets after the end of injection,” S. Singh, M. Musculus, J. Fluids Eng. 132:081203 (2010)

“Planar laser-diagnostics of soot and OH with post-injections in a heavy-duty LTC diesel engine,” Bobba MK, Chartier C, Johansson B, Andersson Ö and Musculus MPB, THIESEL Conference (2010)

“Entrainment waves in diesel jets,” Musculus MPB and Kattke K, SAE Tech. Paper 2009-01-1355, SAE Int. J. Engines 2:1170-1193 (2009)

“Influence of diesel injection parameters on end-of-injection liquid length recession,” Kook S, Pickett LM, Musculus MPB and Gemlich R, SAE Tech. Paper 2009-01-1356, SAE Int. J. Engines 2:1194-1210 (2009)

“Effect of ignition delay on in-cylinder soot characteristics of a heavy duty diesel engine operating at low temperature conditions,” Bobba M, Genzale CL, Musculus MPB, SAE Tech. Paper 2009-01-0946, SAE Int. J. Engines 2:911-924 (2009)

“Mixing, autoignition, and flame structure under multiple modes of diesel engine combustion,” Singh S, Musculus MPB, Reitz RD, Combust. Flame 156(10):1898-1908 (2009)

“Optical diagnostics and multi-dimensional modeling of spray targeting effects in late-injection low-temperature diesel combustion,” Genzale CL, Musculus MPB, Reitz RD, SAE Tech. Paper 2009-01-2699, SAE Int. J. Engines 2(2):150-172, (2009)

“Entrainment waves in decelerating turbulent jets,” Musculus MPB, J. Fluid Mech. 638:117-140 (2009)

“Effects of spray targeting on mixture development and emissions in late-injection low-temperature heavy-duty diesel combustion,” Genzale CL, Reitz RD and Musculus MPB, Proc. Combust. Inst. 32(2):2767-2774 (2009)

“Modeling and optical measurements of swirl effects in late-injection low-temperature heavy-duty diesel combustion,” Genzale CL, Reitz RD, and Musculus MPB, THIESEL 2008, Valencia, Spain (2008)

“Effects of piston bowl geometry on mixture development and late-injection low-temperature combustion in a heavy-duty diesel engine,” Genzale CL, Reitz RD and Musculus MPB, SAE paper 2008-01-1330, SAE Int. J. Engines 1(1):913-937 (2008)

“Gradient effects on two-color soot optical pyrometry in a heavy-duty DI diesel engine,” Musculus MPB, Singh S and Reitz RD, Combust. Flame 153(1-2):216-227 (2008)

“Optical diagnostics of late injection low-temperature combustion in a heavy duty diesel engine,” Lachaux T, Musculus MPB,  Singh S and Reitz RD, J. Eng. Gas Turb. Power 130(3):1-9 (2008)

“End-of-injection over-mixing and unburned hydrocarbon emissions in low-temperature-combustion diesel engines,” Musculus MPB, Lachaux T, Pickett LM and Idicheria C, SAE Paper 2007-01-0907, SAE Trans. 116(3):515-541 (2007)

“Liquid-phase diesel spray penetration during end-of-injection transient,” Kook S, Pickett LM, Musculus MPB, Kattke K and Gehmlich RK, COMODIA 2008, Japan (2008)

“In-cylinder and exhaust soot in low-temperature combustion using a wide-range of EGR in a heavy-duty diesel engine,” Huestis E, Erickson P and Musculus MPB, SAE paper 2007-01-4017, SAE Trans. 116(4):860-870 (2007)

“Simultaneous optical diagnostic imaging of low-temperature, double-injection combustion in a heavy-duty DI diesel engine,” Singh S, Reitz RD and Musculus MPB, Combust. Sci. Technol. 179(11):349-370 (2007)

“Optical diagnostics of late injection low-temperature combustion in a heavy duty diesel engine,” Lachaux T, Musculus MPB, Singh S and Reitz RD, ASME Internal Combustion Engine Division 2007 Fall Technical Conference (2007)

“In-cylinder unburned hydrocarbon visualization during low-temperature compression-ignition engine combustion using formaldehyde PLIF,” Lachaux T and Musculus MPB, Proc. Combust. Inst. 31:2921-2929 (2007)

“Validation of engine combustion models against detailed in-cylinder optical diagnostics data for a heavy-duty compression-ignition engine,” Singh S, Reitz RD, Musculus MPB and Lachaux T, Int. J. Engine Res. 8(1):97-126 (2007)

“Multiple simultaneous optical diagnostic imaging of early-injection low-temperature combustion in a heavy-duty diesel engine,” Musculus MPB, SAE Tech. Paper 2006-01-0079, SAE Trans. 115(3):83-110 (2006)

“Comparison of the characteristic time (CTC), representative interactive flamelet (RIF), and direct integration with detailed chemistry combustion models against optical diagnostic data for multi-mode combustion in a heavy-duty DI diesel engine,” Singh S, Reitz RD and Musculus MPB, SAE Tech. Paper 2006-01-0055, SAE Trans. 115(3):61-82 (2006)

“Evaluation of the equivalence ratio-temperature region of diesel soot precursor formation using a two-stage Lagrangian model,” Pickett LM, Caton J, Musculus MPB and Lutz A, Int. J. Engine Res. 7(5):349-370 (2006)

“Diagnostic considerations for optical laser-extinction measurements of soot in high-pressure combustion environments,” Musculus MPB and Pickett LM, Combust. Flame 141(4):371-391 (2005)

“2-Color thermometry experiments and high-speed imaging of multi-mode diesel engine combustion,” Singh S, Reitz RD and Musculus MPB, SAE Tech. Paper 2005-01-3842, SAE Trans. 114(4):1605-1621 (2005)

“Measurements of the influence of soot radiation on in-cylinder temperatures and exhaust NOx in a heavy-duty DI diesel engine,” Musculus MPB, SAE Tech. Paper 2005-01-0925, SAE Trans. 114(3):845-66 (2005)

“On the correlation between NOx emissions and the diesel premixed burn,” Musculus MPB, SAE Tech. Paper 2004-01-1401, SAE Trans. 113(4):631-51 (2004)

“Effects of the in-cylinder environment on diffusion flame lift-off in a DI diesel engine,” Musculus MPB, SAE Tech. Paper 2003-01-0074, SAE Trans. 112(3):314-337 (2003)

“Effects of water-fuel emulsions on spray and combustion processes in a heavy-duty DI diesel engine,” Musculus MPB, Dec JE, Tree DR, Daly D, Langer D, Ryan TW, III and Matheaus AC, SAE Tech. Paper 2002-01-2892, SAE Trans. 111:2736-2756 (2002)

“Effects of fuel parameters and diffusion flame lift-off on soot formation in a heavy-duty diesel engine,” Musculus MPB, Dec JE and Tree DR, SAE Tech. Paper 2002-01-0889, SAE Trans. 111(3):1467-1489 (2002)

“Effects of PuriNOx(TM) water-diesel fuel emulsions on emissions and fuel economy in a heavy-duty diesel engine,” Matheaus AC, Ryan TW, III, Daly DT, Langer DA and Musculus MPB, SAE Tech. Paper 2002-01-2891, SAE Trans. 111:2725-2735 (2002)

“Glow plug assisted ignition and combustion of methanol in an optical diesel engine,” Mueller CJ and Musculus MP, SAE Tech. Paper 2001-01-2004 (2001)

“Demonstration of a two-photon, confocal laser-induced fluorescence technique for the detection of nitric oxide in atmospheric pressure flows and hydrocarbon-air flames,” Reeves M, Farrell PV and Musculus MP, Meas. Sci. Technol. 10:285-294 (1999)

“A confocal, two-photon laser-induced fluorescence technique for the detection of nitric oxide,” Reeves M, Musculus MP and Farrell PV, Appl. Opt. 37:6627-6635 (1998)

“Development of a filtering technique for planar LIF of the CH radical with diagonal excitation/observation,” Musculus MP and Foster D, Appl. Spectrosc. 53:764-769 (1999)

“An application of the coherent flamelet model to diesel engine combustion,” Musculus MP and Rutland CJ, SAE Tech. Paper 950281, SAE Trans. 111:531-549 (1995)

“Coherent flamelet modeling of diesel engine combustion” Musculus MP and Rutland CJ, Combust. Sci. Technol. 104:295-337 (1995)

“Progress towards diesel combustion modeling” Rutland CJ, Ayoub N, Han ZY, Hampson GJ, Kong SC, Mather D, Musculus MP, Patterson MA, Ricart L, Stephenson P and Reitz RD, SAE Tech. Paper 952429, SAE Trans. 104:1317-1329 (1995)

“Diesel engine model development and experiments,” Rutland CJ, Ayoub N, Han ZY, Hampson GJ, Kong SC, Mather D, Montgomery DT, Musculus MP, Patterson MA, Pierpont DA, Ricart L, Stephenson P and Reitz RD, SAE Tech. Paper 951200 (1995)

Other conference/workshop publications/reports (14):

“Final report: LDRD 173664, predictive engineering tools for novel fuels,” Musculus MPB, Sennott T, Dibble RW, Aznar M, Taatjes CA, Miles PC, SAND report 2016-9395 (2016)

“Comparing vapor penetration measurements from IR thermography of C-H stretch with schlieren during fuel injection in a heavy-duty diesel engine,” Eagle WE, Malbec LM and Musculus MPB, Paper 2C12, 9th U. S. National Combustion Meeting, Cincinnati, Ohio (2015)

“Image-based correlation of engine operating parameters with occurrence and duration of diesel fuel injector dribble,” Eagle WE and Musculus MPB, Paper Oral-Only, SAE International Congress and Exposition, Detroit, MI (2015)

“Advanced CFD diagnostics: tracking soot from originating fuel sources through to EVO in a Cummins N14 optical engine utilizing post injections,” Hessel RP, Reitz RD, Yue Z, Musculus MPB and O’Connor JA, Paper Oral-Only, SAE International Congress and Exposition, Detroit, MI (2015)

“Measuring transient entrainment rates of a confined vaporizing diesel jet” Eagle WE, Musculus MPB, Malbec LM and Bruneaux G, Paper 60_2014, ILASS Americas 26th Annual Conf. on Liquid Atomization and Spray Systems, Portland, OR (2014)

“Optical investigation of multiple injections for unburned hydrocarbon emissions reduction with low-temperature combustion in a heavy-duty diesel engine,” O’Connor JA and Musculus MPB, Paper # 0701IC-0033, 8th US National Meeting of the Combustion Institute, Park City, UT (2013)

“An in-cylinder imaging survey of low-temperature, high-efficiency combustion strategies,” Musculus MPB, Directions in Engine Efficiency and Emissions Research (DEER) Conference (2011)

“Chemiluminescence and fuel PLIF imaging of reactivity controlled compression ignition (RCCI) combustion,” S.L. Kokjohn, R.D. Reitz, M.P.B. Musculus, ILASS Americas, 23rd Annual Conference on Liquid Atomization and Spray Systems (2011)

“In-cylinder processes of EGR-diluted low-load, low-temperature diesel combustion,” Musculus MPB, Directions in Engine Efficiency and Emissions Research (DEER) Conference (2009)

“LII spectra and simultaneous imaging with 532 & 1064 nm excitation at LTC diesel engine conditions,” M. K. Bobba and M. P. B. Musculus, Fall Technical Meeting of Western States Section of the Combustion Institute, UC Irvine (2009)

“A numerical modeling study of entrainment and mixing in a decelerating transient gas-jet,” S. Singh, M. Musculus, Sixth U.S. National Combustion Meeting, Ann Arbor, MI (2009)

“Diesel engine autoignition and flame structure in high- and low-temperature combustion modes,” S. Singh, R. D. Reitz and M. P. B. Musculus, Central States section of the Combustion Institute Technical Meeting (2008)

“In-Cylinder Imaging of Conventional and Advanced, Low-Temperature Diesel Combustion,” Musculus MPB, Directions in Engine Efficiency and Emissions Research (DEER) Conference (2005)

“Initial Alternative Fuels Research Results Obtained Using the Sandia/Caterpillar Optical Engine,” Musculus MP and Mueller CJ, Internal Sandia Report SAND2001-8035:1-57 (2000)